"Organizational agility: What it is, what it is not, and why it matter

Summary

Méta analyse de la littérature sur l’agilité organisationnelle et stratégique, les articles sur l’agilité présents dans les 10 principales revues de recherche ont été sélectionné dans cette recherche. Un tableau présente les principaux articles recensés (p. 21)
Thèmes communs à l'agilité organisationnelle :
Agility as a specific set of organizational sense-response actions
Internal change : "Ability to detect and respond to environmental opportunities and threats with ease, speed, and dexterity" (Nadkarni and Narayanan, 2007)
agility is specified as persistent, systematic variations in an organization's outputs, structure or processes that are identified, planned, and executed as a deliberate strategy to gain competitive advantage (Tallon&Pinsonneault, 2011)
The sense-response actions demmed agile can be specified using a bi-dimensional concept of magnitude of variety change (flexibility) and rate (speed) of generating variety change.

The agility concept can be traced to Jack Welch’s interview with Noel Tichy and Ram Charan (1989). Mr. Welch spoke about leadership imperative to cultivate organizational focus on “speed, agility and simplicity.” We used this article as the starting point of research of agility in management.

  • 2001 manifeste agile : Proposed by 17 leading software developers and consultants, the agile manifesto emphasizes four principles that set new priorities in preferring:
    • (1) individuals and interactions over processes and tools
    • (2) working software over comprehensive documentation
    • (3) customer collaboration over contract negotiation
    • (4) responding to change over following a plan (Craig 2004).
  • L’article met l’accent sur la grande variété de définitions de l’agilité stratégique ou l’agilité organisationnelle.
    • « The ability to quickly reconfigure internal structures and contractual obligations to meet market demands » (Matusik & Hill (1998)
    • « Capability to (1) respond promptly to opportunities, (2) manage the risks in the macro environment, and (3) respond effectively to variation in the environment », (Grewal & Tansuhaj 2001)
    • « The capacity to identify, capture, and exploit opportunities more quickly than rivals do », (Sull 2009).
    • Tallon and Pinsonneault (2011: p. 464) conceptualize agility as an organizational ability to “detect and respond to [environmental] opportunities and threats with ease, speed, and dexterity.”
  • Certains auteurs mettent l’accent sur la pertinence du modèle dans les environnements particulièrement volatiles:
    • studies view agility as conditional on environmental (industry) conditions. For instance, Smith and Zeimthal (1996) refer to “uncertain environments,”
    • Volberda (1996) refers to the notion of “high variety” environments
    • Grewal and Tansuhaj (2001) consider “high risk” environments.
  • Table 1 suggests that the likelihood of observing a positive effect of agility on, for example, financial performance (e.g., revenue growth, profitability) or strategic performance (e.g., efficiency, innovation; Grewal & Tansuhaj, 2001) is greater in fast-changing environments (Nadkarni & Narayanan, 2007)
    • Tallon & Pinsonneault (2011) : Agility has a positive and significant influence on firm performance (ROA, net margin, and operating income/assets)
    • Grewal & Tansuhaj (2001) : Strategic flexibility positively influences firm performance in times of crisis.